This is a page you can refer to if you forget any of the medical terms used in the course:

  • Active range of motion - the range of motion you can achieve un-assisted
  • Adhesions - sticky strands of material that have the potential to become infiltrated with scar tissue
  • AF - arthrofibrosis
  • Anterior - in the front
  • Anterior interval - the space in the front of the knee at the top of the tibia and within the capsule
  • AROM - Active range of motion
  • Articular - where bones move in relation to one another
  • Articular cartilage - the white gristle at the ends of the bones where they form the joint
  • Articular surface - that region of the bones of the joint where they are in contact
  • Arthroscope - the light source and camera for keyhole surgery
  • Arthroscopy - looking into a joint through an arthroscope
  • Arthrofibrosis - abnormal scar tissue formation in and around a joint
  • Bursa - a lubricating pocket in soft tissues where there is a lot of movement
  • Capsule - waterproof 'bladder' around the joint
  • Capsulotomy - surgical procedure to cut the capsule to free scar tissue
  • Cartilage - same as articular cartilage
  • Clergyman's knee - inflammation in a bursa just below the knee
  • CPM - continuous passive motion
  • Condyle - rounded end of the femur bone
  • Continuous passive motion - keeping the knee moving slowly via a hinged machine
  • Contracture - freezing up of a joint because of scarring in the soft tissues
  • Cruciate ligaments - the two cross-over ligaments in the middle of the knee, between tibia and femur
  • Deep infrapatellar bursa - a lubricating pocket behind the kneecap
  • DeLee osteotomy - cutting a block of bone at the attachment of the patellar tendon, with the tendon attached, and sliding it up to improve the position of the patella. The bone block is fixed in the new position.
  • Extension - the movement towards straightening the knee
  • Extension contracture - being unable to passively improve flexion, due to soft tissues being so tight with adhesions/scarring
  • Extension deficit - being unable to actively fully extend the knee, and also being unable to take it further passively
  • Extension lag - being unable to actively fully extend the knee, and but being able to take it further passively
  • Fascia - a network of fine tissue between and around muscles
  • Fat pad (aka Hoffa's pad) - a fatty structure positioned below and behind the kneecap, between the patellar tendon and the anterior aspect of the tibia and that goes into the anterior knee compartment as well
  • Femur - thighbone
  • Flexion - the movement towards bending the knee
  • Flexion contracture - being unable to passively improve extension, due to soft tissues being so tight with adhesions/scarring
  • Flexion deficit - being unable to actively fully flex the knee, and also being unable to take it further passively
  • Flexion lag - being unable to actively fully flex the knee, and but being able to take it further passively
  • Fracture - a bone break
  • Fulcrum - the point on which a lever is supported
  • Goniometer - and instrument for measuring range of motion. Often made of plastic.
  • Greater trochanter - the bony lump you can feel at the top of your hip on the outside
  • Gutters - folds on the sides of the joint capsule
  • Housemaid's knee - inflammation in the bursa in front of the kneecap
  • Hyperextension - straightening the knee beyond 0 degrees, so that it is bent a bit backwards
  • Inclinometer - a device for measuring tilt
  • Intermeniscal ligament - the little ligament between the two menisci at the front of the knee
  • Joint capsule - same as 'capsule'
  • Keyhole surgery - same as 'arthroscopy'
  • KNEEguru - website dedicated to knees
  • Lateral - on the outer side
  • Lateral epicondyle - the bump of bone you can feel on the outer side of the femur at the knee joint
  • Lateral gutter - folds at the sides of the capsule
  • Lateral malleolus - the bony lump on the outside of the ankle
  • Lateral retinacular release (or 'lateral release') - operation to cut a tight lateral retinaculum
  • Lateral retinaculum - the fan-shaped thickening at the sides of the patella
  • Lubricating fluid - the inner cell lining of the capsule secretes this fluid into the joint space
  • Maquet procedure - a surgical procedure where the bony attachment of the patellar tendon is prised into a better position and fixed there
  • Manipulation under anaesthesia - putting the patient to sleep in the operating room and moving the knee through its range of motion to try and break adhesions
  • Medial retinacular release (or 'medial release') - cutting the medial retinaculum
  • Meniscus - the shock absorber of the knee
  • MUA - manipulation under anaesthesia
  • NSAID - non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
  • Notch - the deep space between the two rounded ends of the femur, where the cruciate ligaments lie
  • Osteotomy - cutting and re-positioning a bone
  • Passive range of motion - the range of motion that can be achieved by an assistant
  • Patella - kneecap
  • Patella infera - a kneecap in an abnormally low position
  • Patellar tendon - the tendon below the kneecap
  • Patellar tendon lengthening - a surgical procedure to lengthen the patellar tendon
  • Posterior - towards the rear
  • Posterior capsule - the rear of the capsule
  • Pouch - an open cavity
  • Pre-patellar bursa - a lubricating pocket in front of the kneecap
  • PRICE - protect, rest, ice, compression, elevation
  • PROM - passive range of motion
  • Plumber's knee - inflammation of the bursa below the kneecap
  • PT - physical therapistQuadriceps - the muscle making up the 'lap'
  • Quadricepsplasty - a surgical procedure to free from adhesions that space between the two quadriceps muscles - the rectus femoris and the vastus intermedius
  • Quadriceps tendon - the tendon of the quadriceps muscle
  • Quads - abbreviation of 'quadriceps'
  • Retinaculum - fan-like fibrous network on either side of the kneecap
  • Range of motion - the range in degrees between as flexed as you can go to as extended as you can go
  • Rectus femoris - one of the central quads heads - the one superficial to vastus intermedius
  • ROM - abbreviation for 'range-of-motion'
  • Salvage operation - surgery that may help the bad situation but which is unlikely to restore full function
  • Soft tissues - muscles, tendons, fascia, capsule (basically the non-bony structures)
  • Superficial infrapatellar bursa - lubricating pocket under the kneecap, superficial to its tendon
  • Suprapatellar pouch - extension of the joint capsule above the patella
  • Tendon - the strong fibrous bit at the end of muscles, attaching them to bone
  • Tibia - shinbone
  • Tibial tuberosity transfer - includes a number of procedures where the bony attachment of the patellar tendon (tibial tubercle) is repositioned, to change the alignment of the patella and its tendon
  • Trochlear groove - a groove in the bone at the end of the femur, where the kneecap glides
  • TTT - tibial tuberosity transfer
  • Vastus intermedius - one of the central quads heads - the one underneath rectus femoris
  • Z-plasty - a procedure to lengthen a structure, such as a tendon
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