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This is a combination of rotational deformities that may lead to patellar (kneecap) pain and instability. Usually the femur is rotated outwards, but the tibia rotated inwards, and the kneecaps face towards one another (squinting or winking patellae).


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Patellar malalignment is a general term pertaining to any abnormality of the position or tracking of the patella.

Malalignment is a very important diagnosis to make because malalignment of the kneecap and the surrounding tissues has the potential to...