Essential knee terminology
MACI search for term

Abbreviation of 'matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation'.

Magnetic resonance imaging search for term

A method of imaging of the body that allows the organs to be viewed in 'slices'.

Malalignment search for term

The word 'mal' means 'bad' or 'poor'. 'Malalignment' implies that the relationship or geometry of one bone in relation to its neighbouring bone is outside of what one might consider normal.

Malleolus search for term

The malleolus is the bone of the ankle.

Maltracking search for term

Maltracking refers to a patella which is not tracking smoothly in the groove of the underlying femur during normal knee movement.

Manipulation under anaesthesia search for term

A procedure to improve the range of movement of a stiff joint, conducted under anaesthesia.

Maquet procedure search for term

The Maquet procedure is a surgical procedure to realign the patella (knee cap) to help relieve kneecap pain.

Marrow stimulation search for term

Bone marrow can be stimulated in the knee by drilling or micro-fracturing through the bone just below the joint cartilage, releasing cells, including stem cells, into the area to enhance healing.

MAT search for term

Abbreviation for Meniscal Allograft Transplantation.

Matrix search for term

A matrix is something that offers support to something more fragile, and in the knee it usually refers to the cartilage matrix.

Matrix-induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implant search for term

A technique of cartilage repair using the patient's own cells, which are multiplied in a laboratory, 'seeded' onto a membrane and shipped back to the surgeon for the second stage of the process when the membrane is implanted into the defect in the knee.

Mc Murray's Test search for term

The Mc Murray test is a test for integrity of the knee meniscus.

MCL search for term

Abbreviation of 'medial collateral ligament'.

Medial search for term

This is a 'position' word, to help to describe the position of body parts. It means 'on the inner aspect' - so the side of the knees which touch each other are the medial sides, while the outer sides of the knees are the lateral sides.

Medial collateral ligament search for term

The medial collateral ligament is a band of fibrous tissue supporting the medial (inner) aspect of the knee joint.

Medial patello-femoral ligament search for term

The medial patello-femoral ligament is a small but important ligament stretching from the inner aspect of the patella (knee cap) to the femur bone.

Medial reefing search for term

A surgical procedure to tighten the tissues on the medial aspect of the patella.

Mediopatellar plica search for term

A mediopatellar plica is a flattened band of synovium (joint lining) inside the knee, left over from the embryological development of the knee.

Melbourne Return to Sport Score search for term

A scoring system to determine fitness for sport after ACL reconstruction.

Membrane search for term

A membrane is a thin filmy tissue enclosing an anatomical structure. It is a non-specific term.

Meniscal allograft search for term

A meniscal allograft is a transplant procedure when a meniscus is taken ('harvested') from a cadaver donor and inserted into living recipient, where it replaces their own meniscus.

Meniscal allograft transplantation search for term

A transplant of a meniscus from one person to another.

Meniscal arrow search for term

Meniscal arrows are tiny bio-degradeable polymer harpoons which are used to hold together the torn fragments of a 'knee cartilage' (meniscus) tear until the fragments join together and the arrow dissolves.

Meniscal avulsion search for term

Detachment of the outer rim of the meniscus from the top of the tibia bone, due to damage to the ligaments there.

Meniscal cyst search for term

Meniscal cysts are little bags of joint fluid under pressure, usually appearing as a tender lump along the joint line.

Meniscal reconstruction search for term

Rebuilding absent meniscal tissue, eg with scaffolds

Meniscal tears search for term

Tears in the substance of the meniscus.

Meniscal transplant search for term

Same as 'meniscal allograft'.

Meniscal transplantation search for term

A transplant of the meniscus of the knee from donor to recipient.

Meniscectomy search for term

A meniscectomy is the surgical procedure of removing a meniscus.

Menisci search for term

Plural of 'meniscus' - the shock absorber of the knee.

Menisco-femoral ligament search for term

The meniscofemoral ligament is a fibrous structure running from the posterior horn (the part at the back) of the lateral meniscus to the medial femoral condyle.

Meniscus search for term

The meniscus is the shock absorber of the knee.

Meniscus cartilage search for term

The meniscus cartilage or 'semi-lunar' cartilage is the shock absorber of the knee, sandwiched between the thighbone and shinbone.

Mesenchymal stem cells search for term

Stem cells capable of differentiating into bone, cartilage, and related tissue types.

Meta-analysis search for term

The statistical procedure for combining data from multiple studies.

Metallosis search for term

A condition where the body is adversely affected by metal ions from metal abrasion from implants.

Metaphysis search for term

The part of a long bone that is the growing area, just next to the growth plate. With maturity it turns into proper bone and stops growing.

Microfracture search for term

Microfracture is a surgical procedure where a tiny 'pick' is used to spike holes through damaged joint cartilage into the bone below, to allow migration of marrow cells into the resultant clot, and facilitate new cartilage formation.

Mini squats search for term

A knee rehabilitation exercise.

Mini stork search for term

A knee rehabilitation exercise.

Mini trampoline search for term

A knee rehabilitation exercise.

Mini-incision knee arthroplasty search for term

Knee replacement performed with a smaller incision, and using special techniques and instruments.

Mini-incision knee replacement search for term

Same as 'mini-incision knee arthroplasty'.

Miserable malalignment search for term

This is a combination of rotational deformities that may lead to patellar (kneecap) pain and instability. Usually the femur is rotated outwards, but the tibia rotated inwards, and the kneecaps face towards one another (squinting or winking patellae).

Mosaicplasty search for term

A mosaicplasty is a surgical procedure to repair damaged joint (hyaline) cartilage. Small plugs of normal cartilage are taken from another part of the knee and packed tightly together in the prepared cavity, and resemble a mosaic.

Mouse search for term

Same as 'loose body' - a fragment of cartilage floating freely in the knee jjoint cavity.

MPFL search for term

Abbreviation of 'medial patello-femoral ligament'.

MRI search for term

Abbreviation of 'magnetic resonance imaging'.

MRSS search for term

Abbreviation for 'Melbourne Return to Sport Score'.

MSC search for term

Mesenchymal stem cell - capable of developing into bone, cartilage and related tissues.

MUA search for term

Abbreviation of 'Manipulation under anaesthesia'.

Mulberry knot search for term

This is a kind of knot used by surgeons when suturing (sewing) a torn meniscus. The knot resembles a tiny mulberry on the outsde of the joint.

Muscle stimulation search for term

Muscle stimulation is an electric therapeutic modality that physiotherapists can use to help strengthen the muscles around the knee.

Myositis ossificans search for term

A condition where bone forms inside muscle.