Essential knee terminology
Click one of the letters above to go to the page of all terms beginning with that letter.
AAHKS search for term
American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons.
AAOS search for term
Abbreviation for 'American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons'.
Abduct search for term
Moving the limb away from the other limb, to the side.
Abductor search for term
A muscle which, when contracted, causes the limb to abduct.
Abrasion search for term
Frictional rubbing of one thing against another.
Abrasion arthroplasty search for term
A surgical procedure to smooth off bits of damaged joint cartilage.
Acceleration injury search for term
An acceleration injury of the knee can occur when the leg is suddenly moved moved into action.
Achilles tendon search for term
The achilles tendon is the big tendon at the back of the ankle.
ACI search for term
Abbreviation for 'autologous chondrocyte implantation'.
ACL search for term
Abbreviation for 'anterior cruciate ligament'.
ACT search for term
Abbreviation for 'autologous chondrocyte transplantation'.
Actifit search for term
A polyurethane meniscal scaffold to replace damaged meniscus, and into which new tissue can grow.
Acupuncture search for term
A system, based on traditional Chinese medicine, of needling special points on the body to relieve pain or improve well-being.
Adduct search for term
Moving the limb towards the other limb, towards the middle.
Adductor search for term
A muscle which, when contracted, adducts the limb.
Adhesions search for term
Adhesions are frond-like filaments which form in the knee in response to inflammation.
AIR search for term
Abbreviation for 'anterior interval release'.
AKP search for term
Abbreviation for 'anterior knee pain'.
Allodynia search for term
Exquisite over-sensitivity of the skin, where light touch is felt as pain or marked discomfort.
Allograft search for term
An allograft is a graft using tissue that did not originate from the patient but from another person.
Alta search for term
Alta means 'high'.
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons search for term
A professional body to which most American Orthopaedic Surgeons would choose to belong.
American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine search for term

The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) is a national organisation of orthopaedic surgeons specialising in sports medicine, including national and international sports medicine leaders.

AMIC search for term

Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis

Amputation search for term

Amputation can be above knee, through knee or below knee.

Analgesics search for term

Analgesics are painkillers.

Anatomy search for term

Anatomy means the 'shape' of the structures in the body, and how the different parts correspond to one another.

Aneural search for term

Aneural means 'without a nerve supply'.

Aneurysm search for term

An aneurysm is a 'blow-out' of a blood vessel at a point of weakness, where it may bulge or even rupture.

Angiogram search for term

An angiogram is an X-ray investigation of the blood vessels, where a contrast agent is injected into the blood vessel and an X-ray taken.

Anterior search for term

Anterior means 'in front' or 'in front of'.

Anterior cruciate ligament search for term

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the two cruciate ligaments inside the knee. It prevents the tibia (shinbone) from excessive forward motion relative to the femur (thighbone), and also prevents too much inwards twisting.

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction search for term

An anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is an operation to replace a damaged anterior cruciate ligament with a ligament graft or a synthetic ligament.

Anterior drawer test search for term

The anterior drawer test is a test of the integrity of the anterior cruciate ligament.

Anterior horn search for term

The words 'anterior horn' refer to the anterior horn of the meniscus.

Anterior interval search for term

The 'anterior interval' is the region of the knee between the fat pad and the front of the tibia bone (anterior tibial plateau) and the patellar tendon.

Anterior interval arthrofibrosis search for term

Anterior interval arthrofibrosis is the condition of abnormal scarring in the 'anterior interval' - the space below the kneecap and behind the patellar tendon.

Anterior interval release search for term

An anterior interval release is a surgical procedure to remove scar tissue in the 'anterior interval' - a region behind the patellar tendon.

Anterior knee pain search for term

Anterior knee pain means simply 'pain in the front of the knee'.

Anteversion search for term

Anteversion is a rotational deformity, eg of the long bones of the leg.

Anti-inflammatory search for term

An anti-inflammatory is a substance that decreases inflammation.

AOSSM search for term

Abbreviation for 'American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine'.

Apley's Test search for term
This is a clinical test for possible damage to the meniscus.
Aponeurosis search for term

A fibrous sheet-like expansion of a tendon.

Arcuate ligament search for term

A thickening of the posterolateral capsule at the back of the knee, that contributes to stability of the joint in this region.

Arrow search for term

A small barbed fixation device for meniscal repair.

Arthritis search for term

The word 'arthritis' literally means 'inflammation of the joint', but in reality it includes any destructive process involving the cartilagenous joint lining (the 'gristle') at the end of the bones.

Arthrofibrosis search for term

'Arthro' means 'joint' and 'fibrosis' means 'scarring'. Arthrofibrosis means internal scarring of the joint, with possible consequent stiffness.

Arthrogram search for term

An arthrogram is an X-ray of the joint space of the knee.

Arthrolysis search for term

Surgical cutting and removing of scar tissue in a stiff joint.

Arthroplasty search for term

An arthroplasty is a joint replacement.

Arthroscope search for term

An arthroscope is an instrument for looking into the knee.

Arthroscopic abrasion search for term

Arthroscopic abrasion is the 'rubbing down' of a damaged bit of joint cartilage.

Arthroscopic debridement search for term

Debridement is a surgical 'clean up' of the joint cavity.

Arthroscopic lavage search for term

'Lavage' means 'washing'. To lavage a joint means to wash out any blood, fluid or loose debris from inside the joint space.

Arthroscopic meniscectomy search for term

'Ectomy' means 'to cut out'. 'Meniscectomy' means to cut out the meniscus.

Arthroscopic surgery search for term

Arthroscopic surgery is surgery performed via arthroscopy or keyhole surgery.

Arthroscopy search for term

Arthroscopy means 'looking into a joint'.

Articular cartilage search for term

Articular cartilage is the white gristle covering the ends of joint bones ('articulating' bones). It is also called joint cartilage or hyaline cartilage.

Assisted flexion search for term

A knee rehabilitation exercise.

Assisted passive extensions search for term

A knee rehabilitation exercise.

Athletic trainer search for term

An athletic trainer is a professional specialising in athletic health care.

Atrophy search for term

Atrophy means tissue wasting with actual loss of tissue cells (eg muscle atrophy, limb atrophy).

Autograft search for term

'Autografts' are grafts (transplants) taken from one part of a person's body and transferred to another part of the same person.

Autologous search for term

Derived from the same person. A term used to describe a transplant of cells or tissues from one part of the body to another in the same person.

Autologous chondrocyte implantation search for term

The word 'autologous' means 'from the same body'. 'Chondrocyte' means 'a joint cartilage cell'. So the procedure of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is to do with the implantation of a person's own joint cartilage cells back into their body.

Autologous chondrocyte transplantation search for term

Same procedure as 'autologous chondrocyte implantation'.

Autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis search for term

A one-stage cartilage repair technique, where the cartilage defect is cleaned up, microfracture performed, and then covered with a collagen matrix held in place with a combination of fibrin glue and the patient's own serum.

Autonomic search for term

A body process that occurs outside of voluntary contol - like sweating, blushing, salivating.

Avascular search for term

If a tissue is 'avascular' it is not supplied by blood vessels.

Avascular necrosis search for term

Avascular necrosis is cell death caused by interruption of the blood supply.

Avon partial knee replacement search for term

The Avon partial knee replacement is a type of knee replacement for patellar damage.

Avulsion search for term

An avulsion is a tearing away of the normal attachment of an anatomical structure. 

Avulsion fracture search for term

Avulsion means 'tearing from its base'.

Axial plane search for term

If you decided to squeeze down a manhole in the pavement, then the pavement would be in an axial plane in relation to your body.

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